Other virtual humans/ humanoid agents (seen from KIP)
is an open list which will probably be expanded in the furture
AUTHOREN: Gerd Döben-Henisch
FIRST DATE: May-15, 1995
DATE of LAST CHANGE: May-22, 1996
- Prof.Dr.Burghard B.Rieger, Lehrstuhl f"ur Computerlinguistik, FB II: Linguistische Datenverarbeitung
--> Development of a 'Semiotic Cognitive Information Processing System'
(SCIP) within the project 'Language Learning and Meaning Acquisition' (LLAMA). Reconstruction of those processes which constitute meaning.
- Prof. Paul Rosenbloom, University of Southern California
--> Prof. Rosenbloom's AI research activities include responsibility for the
Soar Project at USC. Soar has been under development since 1983, and is a
multi-disciplinary, multi-site attempt to build a general cognitive
architecture. A current application is Soar IFOR (Intelligent Forces), the
ultimate intent of which is to develop automated pilots whose behavior in
simulated battlefields is nearly indistinguishable from that of human
pilots. A prototype was deployed with some success in the STOW-E exercise
in 1994, probably the first occasion on which an AI system was a direct
participant in an operational military exercise.
- Prof. Dr.phil. Roland Posner, FB Kommunikations- u. Geschichtswissenschaften, Institut f. Linguistik, Arbeitsstelle f. Semiotik, Berlin
--> 'Gesture Recognition' within the project 'Gesture Recognition by a data-glove'. Exploration of gesture-codes and the development of symbolic representational systems to represent them.
- Michael MAULDIN, Carnegie Mellon University
---> Software Julia, which mimics a user in a textbased virtual environment (MUD). She is a robot user, with the ability to conduct apparently
intelligent conversations with human users, many of whom are unaware that
she is not human. Developed over a period of five years by Michael Mauldin, she is currently the most advanced example of what were originally called Maas-Neotek robots, from William Gibson's book 'Neuromancer'. Julia analyses the structure and meaning and
context of what is said to her, distinguishes between comments, questions,
etc., accesses an encyclopedic database of response components, and
assembles plausible conversational English responses, employing humor,
sarcasm, politeness, impatience, and diplomacy, as appropriate.
- Kristinn Thorisson, MIT Media Lab
--> When people talk to each other they generally use a wealth of gesture,
speech, gaze and facial expressions to communicate the intended content.
Complex information is combined in a concise manner and representational
styles are chosen in real-time as the conversation unfolds. Kris Thorisson
has been a researcher at the MIT Media Lab since 1990. His recent work
centers on humanoid interface agents, and in particular on capturing
elements that are critical to multimodal dialogue between a real and a
virtual human. Techniques such as eye tracking, speech recognition, etc.
are used to generate responses, including speech and gesture, from the
virtual human in real-time.
- Marc Raibert, Boston Dynamics Inc.
---> Marc Raibert, founder of Boston Dynamics, was formerly Professor of
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. In previous work, he
developed laboratory robots that used control systems for balance and to
coordinate their motions. These robots had legs on which they ran, jumped,
traveled on simple paths, ran fast (13 mph), climbed a simple stairway, and
did simple gymnastic maneuvers. Raibert's approach to automated computer
characters is to adapt control systems from robotics, and to combine them
with physics-based simulation, to allow the creatures to move with physical
realism, without an animator specifying all the details. Boston Dynamics
creates automated computer characters and engineering simulations for
things that move.
- Prof. Jesssica Hodgins, Georgia Institute of Technology
---> Computer animations and virtual environments both require a source of
motion for their characters. Prof. Hodgins's group is exploring one
possible solution to this problem: applying high-level control algorithms
to physically realistic models of the systems to be animated. The goal is
to allow the animator to control the system at a high level and without an
understanding of the underlying forces and torques or the motion of the
individual joints. Her current research focuses on the control of dynamic
physical systems, both natural and human-made, and explores techniques that
may someday allow robots and animated creatures to plan and control their
actions in complex and unpredictable environments.
- Prof. Norman Badler, University of Pennsylvania, Center for human modeling and simulation
--->Prof. Badler has been engaged for something over 20 years in human body
modeling and simulation. Much of his work at the University of Pennsylvania
has centered on the Jack software, widely regarded as the world's most
advanced and versatile commercially-available human modeling system. Jack's
capabilities include complex articulated motion, with balance-aware motion
modification; collision avoidance; gesture and facial expressions;
goal-based tasking; natural language processing, and many other features.
It is used for a wide range of applications, including industrial ergonomic
testing, military simulation and training, and human factors research.
- Prof. Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, MIRALAB-CUI, University of Geneva
--> Prof. Nadia Thalmann has pioneered European research into Virtual Humans
for over 15 years, and enjoys an outstanding international reputation both
for her spectacular state-of-the-art demonstrations, and for the rigorous
and intensive academic research programs which make them possible. One of
her most celebrated projects was the creation of a lifelike real-time 3D
computer graphics articulated model of Marilyn Monroe. The current focus of
her work is the development of realistic virtual humans with
characteristics such as emotions, clothes and hair.
- Prof Daniel Thalmann, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
--> MARILYN is a powerful and versatile virtual human simulation system. It was
developed during a five-year project funded by the European Union, and has
now been released commercially. It includes facial animation, body
animation with deformations, grasping and walking, and hair and clothes
simulation. It also supports autonomy and perception, and can be used to
create simulations in which virtual humans move around in complex
environments they may know and recognize, and in which they can for example
play ball games based on their visual and tactile perception, and react to
other virtual humans, and to real humans. Prof. Thalmann will speak on the
subject of autonomous and perceptive virtual humans, and will demonstrate
some of the work which has been carried out using the MARILYN software.
- Jeff Kleiser/ Diana Walczak, Kleiser/Walczak Construction Co.
---> Jeff Kleiser's and Diana Walczak's background and credits in the computer
animation and special effects fields range from 'Tron' and 'Flight of the
Navigator', via 'Stargate', to 'Clear and Present Danger' and 'Honey I
Shrunk the Theater'. Their ground-breaking human animation work on 'Judge
Dredd' , based around a 3D full body scan of Sylvester Stallone, received
international acclaim, and is an example of the 'synthespian' concept,
created (and trademarked) by Kleiser/Walczak in the late 1980's. The
company recently opened Synthespian Studios, a production facility designed
specifically to create computer-generated characters. Jeff Kleiser lectures
widely on the subject of computer animation, to both academic and
- Linda Jacobson, Silicon Graphics Inc.
--> Linda Jacobson, Silicon Graphics's 'Virtual Reality Evangelist', has for
some years also been a leading figure in the field of performance
animation. This typically involves a human performer, equipped with
anything from a face tracker to a full body motion capture system,
controlling in real-time the movement, gestures and speech of a
computer-generated graphical creature. Performance animation has been
widely used at marketing events, entertainment venues, and in TV shows.
With the advent of avatar worlds on the Internet, a wide range of
performance animation skills is likely to be required, by professional
hosts and performers, and both active and passive visitors and
- Dr Jonathan Waldern, Virtuality Group plc
--> The Virtuality Group has been the market leader in the field of Virtual
Reality entertainment systems throughout the 1990s. In recent years their
games and experiences have incorporated increasingly versatile autonomous
creatures and avatars. The company's range of activities and developments
has now broadened to include consumer products, including an
Internet-compatible immersive VR system currently under development.
- Mitra, Paragraph International
--> Avatars for on-line Internet communities have to be designed to operate
within very tight processing and network bandwidth constraints. The
widespread adoption of VRML and Java will further define the boundaries of
achievable avatar appearance, motion and behavior. At the same time
however, avatars on the net are expected to constitute the vast majority of
the world's virtual humans, and considerable ingenuity will be applied to
maximising performance within these constraints. Mitra was the principal architect of the avatar worlds developed by Worlds
Inc. and of VRML+, Worlds Inc's VRML superset. He was a respected and
leading contributor to the VRML 2.0 standardisation process, in the course
of which his former company WorldMaker Inc., jointly with Silicon Graphics
and Sony, formulated the Moving Worlds specification.
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